The Sinhalese of Sri Lanka, the People Of the Lion
Sinhalese, the endangered nation of Sri Lanka has been under threat of being swept off the planet earth for its 2559 years glorious history: since the ancient times of recurrent invasions by the marauding Dravidian forces hell bent on plunder and pillage, slaughter and sack, ruin and rampage, murder and mayhem; through the Portuguese, Dutch and British colonial eras; through three decades of terrorism and war; to the twenty-first century modern powerhouses of the west.
Sinhalese of Sri Lanka, the People of the Lion are the descendants of the Prince Wijaya and his 700 followers who arrived from Bengal, east India in the year 543 BC.
India’s Ajanta Cave No 17: the ‘coming of Sinhala’.The prince is seen in both of groups of elephants and riders.
Numerous races have their origins wrapped in the mist of mythology and legends of prehistory or unrecorded histories. Nourished by wolves, Romulus and Reemus went onto found Rome; empowered by the Excalibur King Arthur went on to found England. In a similar vein, Sinhalese too recognize their ancestry to Prince Wijaya, the son of King Sinhabahu, whose father was the most ferocious beast and whose mother was most beautiful and most amorous Princess Suppadevi of Vanga [modern Bengal] of India.
India’s Ajanta Cave No 17:The consecration of King Sinhala (Prince Vijaya)
Sri Lanka’s peerless chronicle-the uninterrupted narration of [since 543 BC to date] unbroken Aryan Sinhalese civilization-called Mahawamsa [Sinhala: the great genelogy][corroborated by archeological (1), epigraphical (2) and numismatic evidence] of which the first part was written by Buddhist monk Thera Mahanama [uncle of King Dathusena, father of King Kasyapa, who built Sigiriya Rock Citadel and Sigiriya City- today a UNESCO World heritage Site and a Sri Lanka Holidays Cultural attraction conveniently located within Sri Lanka Holidays Cultural Triangle] about 500 years after the arrival of Prince Wijaya records “The Coming of Wijaya”:
Quote Mahavamsa, the Great Chronicle of Ceylon Translated by Wilhelm Geiger, Ph. D. ISBN 955-8540-83-8
In the country of the Vangas in the Vanga capital there lived once a king of the Vangas. The daughter of the king of the Kalingas was that king’s consort. By his spouse the king had a daughter, the soothsayers prophesied her union with the king of beasts.Very fair was she and very amorous and for shame the king and queen could not suffer her.
Alone she went forth from the house, desiring the joy of independent life; unrecognized she joined a caravan to Magada country. In the Lala country a lion attacked the caravan in the forest, the other folk fled this way and that, but she fled along the way by which the lion had come.
When the lion had taken his prey and was leaving the spot he beheld her from afar, love (for her) laid hold on him, and he came towards her with waving tail and ears laid back. Seeing him she bethought her of that prophecy of the soothsayers which she had heard, and without fear she caressed him stroking his limbs.
The lion, roused to firescest passion by her touch, took her upon his back and bore her with all speed to his cave, and there he was united with her, and from his union with him the princes in time bore twin-children,a son and a daughter. Unquote
Quote Mahavamsa, the Great Chronicle of Ceylon Translated by Dr. Ananda Guruge
The hands and feet of the son were like those of a lion. Hence he was named Sihabadhu; and the daughter Sihasivali. The son at sixteen years of age questioned the mother on the doubt. “Mother, why are you and our father different?’ She told him everything. He asked “Why don’t we go?” She told him, “Your father blocks the cave with a rock.” He carried the rock blocking the great cave on his shoulder and covered on one day fifty yojans up and down.
When the lion had gone out in search of prey, he dparted speedily with the mother on the right shoulder and the younger sister on the left. Covering themselves with the branches, they reahed a border village. At that time, the cousin of the princess was the general of the Vanga-king, stationed to baclam the border. Seated at the foot of a banyan-teee overseeing the work, he saw them & questioned them. They replied “We are forest-dwellers.” The general had clothes given to them. They turned splendid. He had rice given to them on leaves. By their merit, the leaves turned into golden vessels.
Amazed by this, the lord of the army asked them, “Who really are you?” the princess apprised them, “Who really are you?” The princess apprised him of her family and clan. The general took his uncle’s daughter, went to the city of Vanga and lived with her.
The lion returning to the cave in haste did not see the three people. Afflicted by grief over the son, he neither ate nor drank. Searching for the children, he went to the border-villages. Every village he went to, the dwellers deserted. The inhabitants on the border went to the king and informed him “lion ravages you country. Prevent it. Your Majesty.”
Quote Mahavamsa, the Great Chronicle of Ceylon Translated by Wilhelm Geiger, Ph. D. ISBN 955-8540-83-8
Since he found none who could ward off 9this danger) he had a thousand (pieces of money) led about the city on an elephant’s back and this proclamation made: ‘Let him who brings the lion receive this! And in like mannar the monarch offered two thousand and three thousand. Twice did Sinhabahu’s mother restrain him. The third time without asking his mother’s leave Sinhabahu took the three thousand gold-pieces (as reward) for slaying his own father.
They presented the youth to the king, and the king spoke thus to him: ‘if thou shalt take the lion I will give thee a once the kingdom’. And he went to the opening of the cave, and as soon as he saw from afar the lion who came forward, for love of toward his son, shot an arrow to slay him. 
The arrow struck the lion’s forehead but because of his tenderness (towards his son) it rebounded and fell on the earth at the youth’s feet. And so it fell out three times, then did the king of beasts grow wrathful and the arrow sent at him struck him and pierced his body.
Quote Mahavamsa, the Great Chronicle of Ceylon Translated by Douglas Bullis ISBN 955-1266-09-9
Taking the lion’s head and man, Sinhabahu went into the city. Seven days before the King of the Vangas had died. As the king had no son, his ministers, rejoicing over Sinhabahu’s deed and learning that he was in fact the king’s grandson, assembled and told him, “You may be our king.”
Sinhabahu accepted the kingdom and handed it over to his mother’s husband Anura, the Commander of the Army. Taking Sihasivali with him, Sihabahu returned to his native Vanga. Then traveling south, he established a city called Sihapura. In the forest for over a hundred yojans around he founded village.
King Sihabahu reigned in Sinhapura, having made his sister Sihasivali his chief consort. As time passed, she bore twin sons sixteen times. The elder was named Vijaya………
Quote Mahavamsa, The Great Chronicle of Sri Lanka. An annotated new translation with prolegomena. Translated by Dr. Ananda Guruge ISBN 955–20-8963-8
The Prince named Vijaya, the valiant, landed in Lanka, in the region called Tambpanni  on day the Tathagata  laydown between the twin like sala trees to pass into nibbaana .
Professor Ediriweera Sarchchandra, Ph. D. Western Phiolosphy, London University
The unparalleled Literary breakthrough in Sri Lanka that went unnoticed by the literary world at large
The legend of Sinhabau was made into a stylist play titled “Sinhabahu” [ year 1961] by Sri Lanka’s greatest modern literary light, the foremost dramatist, the peerless novelist, Ediriweera Sarachchandra [3 June 1914 – 16 August 1996]. Such was the literary [not merely dramatic] effect of the drama, Sinhabahu makes the audience bewildered, being unable to make up their mind over the right from wrong: the Lion who loved his children to the death, nourished, protected and wanted them to live with him till his death; the human son, knowing the humans couldn’t dwell for ever, devoid of human contact, closed in a cave with a beast, wanting to save the land being ravaged & villagers being killed by the Lion, resorting to kill his own father.
Who was right? Who was wrong? What was the truth? Ediriweera Sarachchandra took the literary world to the realm of grey: the perceived right and wrong was brought into disputation. Has anybody else in the wide world of literature achieved the same to the extent Ediriweera Sarachchandra had done?
Write me, O writer, a justification of Jew-baiting & death camps.
Put it in the invented mouths of an invented zealot.
Make it convince.
The artist’s pride: he must see if he can do it.
What is the point of the dialectic of fiction or drama unless the evil is as cogent as good?
Anthony Burgess: Earthly Powers (A novel)
Ediriweera Sarachchandra brought about same dialectic of fiction or drama as in the “Sinhabahu” in his play “Maname” and the twin novels of Malagiya aththo [Sinhala: the dead souls] & “Malagiyawinge avrududa” [Sinhala: The anniversary of the dead].
For a fictional narration of the arrival of Prince Vijaya in Sri Lanka, click here. Diary of God Vishnu
 To see archeological evidence, visit Sri Lanka Holidays cultural attractions, at least the UNESCO World Heritage sites of Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Sigiriya Citadel, Golden Dambulla Rock Temple located within the Sri Lanka Holidays Cultural Triangle.
 For epigraphical (2) evidence visit Sri Lanka Holidays cultural attractions, at least Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Sigiriya Citadel, Golden Dambulla Rock and Mihintale.
And read Epigraphia Zeylancia being Lithic and other inscriptions of Ceylon in four volumes edited and translated by Don Martino De Zilva Wickremasinghe, H. W. Codrington and S. Paranavitana
 According to Buddhism no being would be harmed by an enemy while he was transcended with compassion towards the same enemy.
 Tambpanni: Modern day Mannar in Sri Lanka, north of Sri Lanka Holidays Wilpattu National Park.
 Tathagata : Gauthama Buddha [623- 543 BC], the founder of Buddhism
 Nibbaana: Nirvana is the supreme state free from suffering and individual existence-” Supreme Enlightenment”. The attainment of nirvana breaks the otherwise endless rebirth cycle of reincarnation.
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Ediriweera Sarachchandra: A Renaisance ManJune 28, 2014, 12:00 pm
By Ranjini Obeyesekere
Born at the cusp of the 20th century, at a moment when the cross influences of colonialism, nationalism, and Buddhist revivalism had a powerful impact on the psyche of Sri Lankan intellectuals, - -generative as well as conflictual —- the life and work of Ediriweera Sarachchandra, represents a transformation of these forces into works of path breaking scholarship and brilliant creativity. His erudition was legendary, and his influence on generations of students as well as the public has made him a household name in the country.
I will present a few vignettes which might convey a glimpse of the intellectual range of his erudition, his sensitivity to the cultural and social demands of his time and his innate creativity that enabled him to fuse the many influences and exposures of his life into magnificent literary and dramatic works.
Born to a Christian mother and a Buddhist father, and named Eustace Reginald de Silva, he transformed himself, his name, and his world, to become Ediriweera Sarachchandra — perhaps the foremost intellectual, scholar, teacher, and creative artist of 20th century Sri Lanka.
His early childhood in a family of devout Christians had exposed him to the English language and western music – he is said to have played the organ in his village church. This double exposure stimulated his intellectual interests which always remained unfettered, and nurtured his sensitivity and love of music which quickly extended to eastern music and its musical instruments. Much later, after his stay in Japan he was fascinated and influenced by the music of Noh performances. Music is then a central element in his later achievements and as H.L.Seneviratne remarked, "It becomes a metaphor for his east-west personality."1
As a young intellectual caught in the ferment of anti colonial nationalism and Buddhist revivalism he fiercely rejected his early Christian cum western identity, studied Pali, Sanskrit and Sinhala, at the University of Ceylon, and with his sharp intellect and amazing memory became very proficient in those languages and their literature. After graduation he chose to go to Shantiniketan, the Mecca for young Asian nationalist intellectuals and spent two years there as a full time student of music. Tagore’s world with its openness to a range of influences, its fusion of native and western cultural, and artistic modes of expression in creative experiments in art, music, and performance, had a deep impact on the young Sarachchandra and strengthened his innate critical and creative instincts.
When he returned to Sri Lanka, aware now that a western academic training was indispensable to the scholarly enterprise, he joined the University of London for graduate work. Again he combined his Pali and Sanskrit background with his interest in the wider world of philosophy and psychology and wrote his PhD dissertation on ‘Buddhist Psychology and Perception.2’
As a University teacher, Sarachchandra’s earliest contribution to the world of scholarship was in the sphere of literary criticism. The late 19th century and early 20th century had seen an enormous growth in Sinhala literary activity in Sri Lanka, fuelled by scholarly monks and lay intellectuals steeped in the theories and traditions of classical Sanskrit aesthetics and philosophy. The anti colonial mood of the time necessarily focused around a revival of the native language and literature. It involved a looking back to the earlier classical heritage coming through Pali and Sanskrit and a rejection of English and western influences associated with colonialism. Accordingly the school of classical critical theorists was readily embraced by Sinhala writers and the success or failure of literary works was judged on how strictly the rules of poetics and prosody as laid down by the Sanskrit aestheticians were applied.
The late 19th century had also seen the growth and spread of printing, which in turn produced an avid reading public interested in the current scholarly and Buddhist revival and the attendant debates and controversies. A spate of journals, newspapers, literary and critical works surfaced to serve this public. Journals sprang up overnight to express or support a particular point of view in a currently raging critical controversy.
Sarachchandra’s earliest foray into this public melee of critical controversy and scholarship was with his book Modern Sinhala Fiction(1943) in which he assessed the work of some contemporary Sinhala novelists from a totally different perspective and evaluative criteria than that used be the current schools of classical theorists. Prof. Malalasekera, in his preface to the book, praised Sarachchandra’s special qualifications for this task because of his university training, his travels abroad, his wide reading and his bilingual background. Yet he has this to add. "The charge can be made against Sarachchandra, with some justification, that he has based his judgement on standards that are unduly high. …. Viewed from that standpoint his verdicts may appear unnecessarily severe"3 Then with great diplomacy he goes on to say, "No one has yet evolved a complete definition of what constitutes good literature. In the last resort the reader is the final judge."4These cautiously framed remarks convey some idea of the tricky position of a critic attempting to evaluate works of contemporaries in a small literary community in a small country like Sri Lanka, where many of them were personal acquaintances if not friends!!
It was in this context of fervent intellectual debate that Sarachchandra together with Martin Wickremasinghe, made a bold bid to introduce critical concepts and theories from the western world into the Sinhala writing of the time. By mid century, there was already a growing recognition among some critics, like Munidasa Kumaranatunge, of the need for developing evaluative criteria that could escape the rigid moulds set by the Sanskrit aestheticians, and create a space for new writing. Like many of his contemporaries Sarachchandra was influenced by the New Critical schools of England and America and the modern literature that was flourishing in the West. His seminal contribution came however with the brilliant tour de force by which he took concepts now current among the New Critics in the west and reinterpreted them in terms of the concepts used by Sanskrit aestheticians –an area he knew only too well. To mention just a few examples, the idea of rasa he related to the concept of aesthetic pleasure derived from a work of art. The concept of dhavani, the secondary or suggested meaning of a word was not different he claimed from the western critical concept of ambiguity and multiplicity of meanings in a work. The concept of aucitya or the appropriateness of words or images in a poem could be related to the western critical concept of organic unity in a work of poetry, and so on. By doing this he cut the ground under the feet of his classical critics. What better justification for the use of modern western critical criteria for evaluating modern Sinhala literary works than the fact of their endorsement in the work of the ancient and venerated Sanskrit theorists!5
In the Principles of Literary Criticism,6Abercrombie states that the realm of literature was occupied by the activities of three distinct powers: the power to create, the power to enjoy, and the power to criticize. A good critic may not necessarily be a good creative writer and vice versa. Nor did everyone have the ability to experience and appreciate the full power (rasa) of a creative work. One had to have a background and sensitivity (be a rasika) to do so. This was something that Sarachchandra endorsed and consistently maintained to the end of his life.
Yet ironically, Sarachchandra himself epitomized the unusual rare combination or fusion of these very powers. He was a brilliant creative artist, passionate in his enjoyment and appreciation of good art, music and literature, a perceptive and extremely sensitive critic, and he did in fact create an audience of rasikas to appreciate modern literature.
Like F.R.Leavis and I.A.Richards, the theoreticians of the then popular school of New Criticism, Sarachchandra’s influence as a critic is closely related to his role as a University teacher. It enabled him to play a pivotal role in the creation, direction, and diffusion of modern western oriented evaluative criticism. Through his influence on successive generations of students he was able to give a new direction to modern Sinhala writing and so make a major contribution to modern Sinhala literature.
Pandit Amaradeva, in a talk he gave in 2002, recalled how Sarachchandra would quote classical poetry while driving his car or seated in a corner of a wayside restaurant. Once in order to convey the kind of subtle musical effect he needed for the love scene for his play Pabavati that he was then working on, Amaradeva says Sarathchandra suddenly quoted a verse from the 13th century poem the Kavsilumina and passionately expounded on it.
Kataka bota mihivita A young woman drinking wine
Heta kiyabu mihi siduvaraa siduvara flower from her hair falls (into her cup)
Duralann?sin pimbiy? as if to move it away the king blew
Muva m? gate naravar? andsucked the nectar of her mouth.
This 13th century classical Sinhala can hardly be understood by most of us today, but Sarachchandra’s fine poetic sensibility could bring out the nuances underlying the verse.
Pandit Ameradeva relates how Sarachchandra described that drinking scene and expounded on the minimalist nuanced lines in which the poet describes the kiss, and then went into a long discourse on the poet’s descriptive power, his language and usage.7 It was this sensitivity to language, literature and music and his uncanny ability to communicate it to others, that galvanized and inspired successive generations both in the classroom and outside.
Sarachchandra was not merely a good teacher, scholar and critic he was also a novelist and a writer in both English and Sinhala. His semi autobiographical novels based on his Japanese exposure are brilliant and moving.
Here is just a brief vignette from his early writings about his travels in India. In an essay titled [Notes of an Uncompleted Journey] he writes:
"It is a great misfortune to form your impressions of India in the trying heat of summer. . …
Quite unknowingly I fell into the trap of the Indian summer. While writhing and sweating in the heat and wondering whether this sams?ra would never end I still remember the reply my wife got from an Indian gentleman who happened to get into our compartment near Calcutta. ‘Is there no place that you can get away from this heat?’ she asked. His words had the inevitability of the teachings of the Indian saints. ‘No madam there is no place in the whole of India where you can escape the summer.’ Sarachchandra adds,
"There is nothing you can do under circumstances such as these but resign yourself to your fate. You have merely to sit cross-legged on your seat, close your eyes and forgetting the flesh endeavor to merge yourself in the Absolute. And it is not surprising that under conditions such as these there grew those philosophies and practices which are peculiar to Indian civilization. I mean the doctrines of karma, nirv?na and dy?na.8
There is a typically Sarachchandra irony that plays over the whole scene described. The intellectual leap he makes from the cross-legged equanimity of his fellow traveler to the philosophies of the sub continent conceived probably as a result of this very heat, are characteristic of the man!
If literary criticism and the introduction of modern forms of critical thinking were Sarachcandra’s major achievements as a teacher and a scholar, it was in the field of drama, the explosive new direction he gave to the Sinhala theatre with his experimental works such as Maname and Sinhabahu, that were the high point of his creative career.
I remember vividly the first night performance of Maname in 1956, at the Lionel Wendt theatre. As the curtain rose and the rich chant of the Pothegura (narrator) filled the auditorium, I sat spellbound at what seemed to me a theatrical miracle. Sarachchandra’s total transformation of ideas and theatrical aspects that he had taken from the traditional rituals and folk plays, into a sophisticated modern drama; the bare stage emblazoned with colorful costumes, the sheer poetry of his verse enhanced by his creative use of music and dance, left me and the audience stunned. Here was something new, exciting, and different from anything seen in the Sinhala theatre so far, breaking away from the western influenced fourth wall proscenium dramas and opening new directions for the Sinhala theatre. As I walked out dazed and excited I remember meeting Regi Siriwardene, at the time the leading critic for the English newspapers, and he was equally transfixed. We talked briefly, at a loss for words to express our excitement.
That was the first night performance. Since then it has had hundreds of performances and played to generations of audiences. Although the stylized dance drama that he introduced has now become standard fare in the theatre and even somewhat passe, yet the sheer poetry of Sarachchandra’s language and music still enthrall his audiences.
Years later when teaching at the Peradeniya University, I remember attending again a performance of Maname. It was at the open air theatre– now named after Sarachchandra —- grass tiered seating under towering Tabeubia trees that shed their delicate pink blossoms on a packed audience of students, teachers, monks, government bureaucrats, workers, and villagers from the surrounding areas. Then, in the scene where the lovers walk in the forest and the now familiar song ‘pr?meyen mana ranjita vey’ was being sung, a student voice spontaneously joined in, and instantly the entire audience burst into the song. It was an unforgettable magical moment.
If Maname was his first experimental drama, then his next play Sinhabahu with its rich dramatic text, the powerfully, complex tragic characters he created around the popular yet simple legend, their singing of his poignant poetry was I think the high point in his dramatic career. Sarachchandra remained a dramatist to the end of his life and continued to write poetic drama yet none has remained as popular or as powerful as Sinhabahu.
I will quote some lines from Lakshmi de Silva’s translation of the dramatic encounter between the lion and his son Sinhabahu:9 No translation can capture the full poetic power of the original – but it is the best we can do.
[The raging lion comes on stage dancing to drum music and singing.]
I will besiege the universe
Unsphere the earth – around the world
Turn and return to seek –to seek.
Those who would trap me I will rend
Crush, tear; with red these claws shall reek
As I lap up their dripping blood,
Shatter their ear drums with my sound
as loud my sky hurled roars resound.
Look is it another man
Destined to die, facing in me
Retribution for past misdeeds?
Why must they come in quest of death?
I cannot understand their ire.
I merely come to seek my wife.
Whom have I wronged? These men bereft me
Of kith and kin, now seek my life.
Ripped crushed and mangled they shall die
In fragments rent their limbs shall lie.
Then the lion recognizes it is his son who has come.The chorus takes over:
That dread lion wild with pain
Of love in severance,
Saw his son’s face like the moon
Over the dark trees rising
And his mind like white night-bloom flowered
In its radiance.
The arrow sped and fell.
But by the power of love
Grazed neither fell nor flesh.
Love of a son goes deep
Piercing skin, flesh and nerve
Seeking the very bone,
Cleaving deep to the marrow
It gives incessant sorrow.
Why does my son shoot at me? Does he not know
Or fail to recognize me? Was it wrath
Or was it fear that made him bend his bow?
I have wandered long seeking your mother, you and your sister. I would know if they are happy. I will not harm you. Do not fear me. Lay aside your bow and arrow. Come to me.
Of course the audience knows that the first two arrows did not touch the lion because of the overpowering love and compassion that suffused his whole being. But when angered by the second arrow he decides to teach his son a lesson, the third arrow strikes home and he is killed.
As a critic Sarachchandra has always remained a controversial figure in spite of his increasing impact on generations of writers and poets. The Peradeniya school of modern criticism of which he was a central figure, though it spread fast from the universities to the schools, has remained controversial. Not so with his dramas. There he stands a towering colossus and has remained so, even though other modes and other styles and experiments have now come into the theatre.
In the late sixties and seventies as young faculty at the University of Peradeniya, living at Mahakande, Sarath was our neighbor sharing a bachelor rental with a colleague. We became close friends. Soon he was a frequent evening visitor at our home. Those evening gatherings were memorable. Sitting over drinks or a pot luck dinner we would talk into the night on any and every topic that currently absorbed us. Often other friends and colleagues dropped in, Alex Gunasekera, H.L. Seneviratne, Ian Van den Driesen, Bandula Jayawardene, to mention a few. The conversation would range from concepts in Buddhist or European philosophy, or modern Sociology, to recent literary criticism, music, drama, folk ritual performances — in short anything that any of us happened to be engaged in. Sarath as we called him was at his scintillating best – ready with a quick repartee, or a quote of a Pali stanza, or a Sanskrit sloka or a piece of classical Sinhala poetry to make a point or clinch an argument. He was equally quick with his jokes and word play. The nicknames he coined for his friends and himself were legendary for their punning and perceptiveness. I shall not attempt a translation. But typical of Sarath he not only coined names for his friends but he claimed one or himself too — "Harak Andare" (court jester of cattle)! His sharp wit and light hearted jokes enlivened the evenings, as the conversations ranged over a gamut of social, political and literary concerns. I realize now that the seeds of some of my own intellectual stimulation came from those evening conversations and my earliest work on Sinhala Literary Criticism germinated there.
Ediriweera Sarachchandra was a renaissance man. His brilliant, wide ranging intellect, could compare, absorb and integrate the multifaceted influences he was exposed to and transform them into powerful works of critical scholarship, fiction, biography, poignant poetry and magnificent dramas. It was done seemingly effortlessly, with ironic wit and often a slight note of self deprecation that endeared him to his friends and subtly destabilized his critics. His boyish laughter was always directed at all forms of intellectual or ideological pomposity. Over his long life he touched the minds and lives of many, but to the very end he was a man on whom years of fame and popularity sat lightly. That was the measure of the man.
Kandy, May 2014.
1 H.L.Seneviratne in an email communication with me. May 10th 2014.
2 Buddhist Psychology and Perception, University of Colombo press, 1958.
3 G.P. Malalasekera in the foreword to Modern Sinhala Fiction, p.x, 1943.
5 For a fuller discussion of the Sanskrit terms and their transformation by Sarachchandra see R. Obeyesekere, Sinhala Writing and the New Critics, Colombo 1974, p38-53
6Sir Patrick Abercrombie, Principles of Literary Criticism. Warwick, 1923
7Pandit Amaradeva in his talk, "Pleasurable experiences I had when I was creating the music for several of Sarachchandra’s plays." Ediriweera Sarachchandra memorial oration, June 14, 2003, p.19 ,20.
8 Essay titled "Notes on an Uncompleted Journey" in Kesari republished as Through Shanthiniketan Eyes, 201.p.55
9 Sinhabahu; Ediriweera Sarachchandra, translated by Lakshmi de Silva, Colombo 2002 p.38 and 39