Like the majority of the American population I have lived in a cloud of ignorance about the HIV and AIDS crisis. I have never know anyone close to me that has been infected with either of the two viruses. So when the option to research something to do with sexuality arouse I felt this would definitely further my education about a lethal killer that is roaming this earth. Since I knew next to nothing about this topic I will start from the begging of the disease and discuss where it’s at now.
The HIV and AIDS disease has been around for awhile although no one has been able to pin point it’s origin. There are many theories floating around the medical world but the most predominant theory “is that the virus first attacked humans in Central Africa up to 100 years ago.”(Kelly 524). It is said that the virus stayed mainly in this closed society until many years later. Many say the disease spread when international travel began to increase. The HIV and AIDS viruses were believed to arrive in the United States sometime during the nineteen seventies. It was a common disease between gay males and intravenous drug abusers. Now it is well known that the viruses have been transmitted through sexually, occasionally through blood and organ transplants.
The acronym HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, where as the acronym AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. When someone has contracted the HIV virus in almost all cases it produces the AIDS virus. Apparently there has been a controversy that HIV really isn’t the cause of the AIDS virus, but careful research has proved without a doubt that it is the cause. Socially the production of the viruses has caused a lot of hate, prejudice, racism and above all homophobia.
Many people only talk about the late stages of AIDS but HIV does not always produce the AIDS virus. If the HIV virus is caught in the early stages it is possible to get treatment and delay the effects of the AIDS virus. When an individual contracts HIV they can expect a fever, swollen glands, and sometimes a rash. As the bodies system tends toward these symptoms the HIV virus may still be undetectable. This first stage is called primary HIV disease then moves onto chronic asymptomatic disease. With this stage comes a decline in the immune cells and often swollen lymph nodes. As time moves on the depletion of immune cells increases leaving the body open to opportunistic infection. This is where normal sickness, disease, and other things in the environment are now able to attack the bodies system. This stage is called the chronic symptomatic disease. A very noticeable symptom is a thrush, which “is a yeast infection of the mouth…”(Kelly 532). Also at this stage there can be infections of the skin and also feelings of fatigue, weight loss, diarrhea, etc.
The actual period of the HIV virus really varies from person to person. Normally with in a year or two the serve stages of HIV set in. At this point in the victims life it is said they have progressed into the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS). This status is established when one or more of diseases have accumulated in the effected victims system. Many victims often have lesions appear on their skin or they begin to acquire a pneumocystic pneumonia. The final stage of the virus attacks the nervous system, “damaging the brain and the spinal cord.”(Kelly 532). This can lead to a number of problems in the body: blindness, depression, loss of body control, loss of memory. This can often last for months before the victim finally passes away.
Once the HIV virus enters the body it infects the “T” cell the protectors of the immune system. Once they have attached to the T cell the HIV molecule sheds it’s outer coating and then releases the Viral RNA material into the T cell. RNA and DNA are basically genetic blueprints for the body. When the Viral RNA enters the T cell it begins transforming into the more complex Viral DNA. This occurs because the virus brings along an enzyme with it that causes the change. Modern medicine uses the drug AZT to put the transformation on hold. After the Viral RNA changes to Viral DNA it then penetrates the nucleus of the T cell. It connects with the cell DNA and awaits the opportunity to produce more Viral RNA. When the victim comes under stress or infection the cells break and become Viral proteins and begin making more Viral RNA. They are then re-coated so they can regain entry into other T cells, mass producing the virus throughout the immune system.
The HIV virus is of the retrovirus type, this is a class of viruses that reproduces with the aids of an enzyme that it carries with it. This allows the virus to transform the genetic RNA into DNA in the host cell. Basically when the virus attacks a cell it tells it’s self, to transform from the RNA to the DNA form and then mass produce the Viral RNA. Unfortunately for modern chemists and biologists the HIV strand is so complex with so many genetic codes it is almost impossible to break down. The thing that makes the HIV virus so lethal is that it attacks directly into the primary defense cells of the immune system leaving it open for attack.
No one knows exactly how HIV destroys CD4 cells, they are white blood cells that play an integral part in the bodies immune system. One possibility is that they directly kill the cell either by causing them to clump together or by disintegrating them. A more recent theory is that HIV instills a genetic program inside the CD4 cell that causes the premature death of thousands of these cells. All cells in the body have a program to die, this helps keep renewing the body with fresh cells. That process is called apoptosis, and it’s believed that HIV increases the rate of this process without the renewal. HIV is very good at cloaking it’s self in the body. This way the virus can move through the body almost undetected killing cells along the way. It also makes it’s way to the neuroglial cells in the brain and spine. This is the main problem defending against HIV, it’s is so quick and sneaky that the body can’t find it.
The HIV and AIDS viruses are technically more complex than what I explained. Now that I talked about what it does to the body I it’s very important to understand how it is transmitted from person to person. It has been documented that the HIV virus is transmitted by the direct transfer of bodily fluids. Those fluids could be either blood or sexually transmitted fluid. Since the virus can stay undetected in a carriers body it is often transmitted to others without knowledge. Those infected with the HIV virus and have acquired AIDS are more likely to transmit the disease compared to those without AIDS. This does not mean that the virus will not be transmitted at all.
The virus normally enters the body through “internal linings of organs(such as the vagina, rectum, urethra within the penis, or mouth)or through openings in the skin, such as tiny cuts or open sores.”(Kelly 534). It has also been proven that the virus can be transmitted from a mother to a baby via breast milk. It has also been shown that HIV can be found in urine, tears, saliva, and feces but no evidence of transmission through these fluids. There is hard evidence stating that HIV has been transmitted by the following; sexual intercourse, either anal or vaginal. Contact with vaginal fluid and semen, transplanted organs or blood from an infected person. The contact with infected blood, the sharing syringes by drug users, tattoo needles that are not sterilized, etc.
There is still no really strong evidence that HIV has been transmitted through oral sex. Although there has been documented cases in which it has been transmitted from a male’s semen through oral sex. There is far less evidence of male’s or female’s contracting the virus through oral sex performed on a female. It has been said that the virus can not be transmitted trough kissing but experts can not rule out this possibility. Some have said that prolonged “French” kissing, open mouth with the switching of saliva, could possibly transmit the virus. There has been no evidence that casual contact has or ever will transmit the disease. This is were many social problems come into effect. Many be tend to isolate people that they know have contracted the virus because they are ignorant to how the disease is transmitted.
“About 5 percent of individuals infected with HIV have remained asymptomatic even without any antiviral treatment.”(Kelly535). It’s not known what causes this very rare occurrence but many doctors are still researching why it happens. Can the body reject the HIV and AIDS virus, unfortunately until now the answer remains no for most. The virus defeats the immune system leaving the vulnerable to other diseases. Those victims that already have a more defeated immune system and then contract HIV will be more likely to acquire AIDS at a much faster rate than normal. Although someone is infected with HIV this does not necessarily mean they are sentenced to die. Few people that have been diagnosed seemed to have rid themselves of the deadly virus. Most people tend to make a drastic change in their lifestyle. A change in eating habits, vitamins, exercises, and work habits. Some of these victims often live for many years after they are diagnosed.
Testing for the HIV and AIDS virus is a process that has become a regular occurrence in most people’s lives. When the virus enters the body it reacts by producing antibodies. Unfortunately these antibody’s can go undetected for sometime leaving people with the false hope that they are HIV negative. In most people it has been estimated that these antibody’s appear with in six months or longer. This is why the medical profession suggests regular HIV testing on a six month interval.
There are two tests mainly used to detect the HIV and AIDS virus. The ELISA and the Western blot. ELISA stands for, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, it is an inexpensive test but often gives false positive diagnoses. When a positive result returns it’s often followed by the Western blot. This is a much more expensive and lengthy test that has to be interpreted by trained professionals. The major problem with HIV testing is that it often develops very slowly in the human body, staying virtually undetected for a long time. This is why so many people can be not carrying the disease without even knowing it.
There are three possible outcome with the testing technology that is available now. First, positive conformation that HIV antibodies are present through out the body. Second, positive conformation that the HIV antibodies are not present through out the body. Third, the uncertain result that HIV antibodies are present in the body.
Filed Under: Aids, Medicine, Science & Technology, Social Issues
Below are 20 argumentative topics on AIDS organizations:
- Why Non-governmental Organizations Fighting AIDS Should be Allowed More Leeway to Operate in Different Countries
- Why AIDS Qualifies as One of the Top Three Most Devastating Diseases
- Proper Education as Groundwork for Care and Prevention of AIDS in Developing Countries
- Why Gender Inequality Can Negatively Impact the Ability of a Country to Offer Diagnostics and Drugs for Sustainable Responses to AIDS
- Why Condoms Are the Best Treatment and Prevention Programs against AIDS
- Why It Is Unethical and Immoral for Religious Organizations to Interfere in STD-Preventing Measures
- Survival of the Fittest Dictates That Countries without Reliable AIDS Organizations Should not Receive Professional Assistance
- Is World Health Organization the Best Agency for Shaping the Agenda of Health Research?
- Is Evidence-Based Policy Options from One Country the Most Reliable Source of Data to Substantiate Health-Related Policies for Countries of Entirely Different Demographics.
- Why It Is Economically Unviable for the WHO to Provide Technical Support to Countries Attempting to Monitor and Assess AIDS
- Why Investing in AIDS Can Save Lives
- Why the Subject-Based Testing for AIDS Treatment and Medication Is Not Unethical
- Why a Global Response to the Epidemic of AIDS is Necessary for Sufficient Global Health
- Benefit That Conferences Can Have for Educating Wider Audiences on Progress and AIDS
- Why Programmatic Responses are Imperative to AIDS Treatment
- Why Privately Operating Foundations Can Offer Better Solutions for AIDS Treatments Compared to Government Funded Programs Halted Regularly by Red Tape
- How Statistics and Facts from Government Funded Organizations for AIDS Can be Skewed to Help Benefit Local Policies and Politicians
- Why the UNAIDS Program Is Inefficient in Tackling the Problem of HIV/AIDS
- Why Local Resources Are the Best Resource to Rely Upon When Targeting AIDS
- Why Tackling Human Rights, Human Dignity, and Gender Equality Are Paramount to the Mobilization of AIDS Efforts
These topics are based on the facts about AIDS prevention organizations, so you can use both in the process of writing. In addition, to polish your paper, check with our tips on argumentative essay writing. Now, below is a sample paper that will be a good example for your assignment.
Sample Argumentative Essay on the Importance of Human Rights, Human Dignity and Gender Inequality for the Mobilization of AIDS Efforts
In order to mobilize efforts to prevent and treat AIDS, each country where AIDS is a prolific problem must tackle three key issues. The first issue is that of human rights. The second issue that of human dignity. The third issue is that of gender equality. Without these things, all of the most highly affected individuals will be unable to partake equally in the prevention, treatment, and care for AIDS.
In cases where there are serious human rights violations, there are often cases that are similar to those of gender inequality. Certain groups — be it classes, religious groups, or genders — are unable to acquire the assistance they need. In certain countries a gap between classes or religious oppression can prevent a particular class of individuals within that country from attending school or educational courses whereby they might be able to acquire the knowledge necessary to not only understand AIDS, but to stop its spread and to treat it when it exists. In areas like India where a strong class system exists, there are levels of separation which dictate the schooling and jobs that individuals can hold. Those without the means to get a decently paying job are left unable to afford the treatment they require or the medication they need.
Human dignity is something which dictates that everyone should be treated in a dignified manner. In places where human dignity is not respected, certain individuals may not be allowed to access the information or medication they need to properly treat AIDS. Communities which are led by strong religious leadership may prohibit their constituents from using the contraceptives that prevent the spread of AIDS because of the device by which the Romans tortured and killed Jews thousands of years ago, or Christian-based faiths. In some countries, the organizations attempting to provide said services are not allowed to access the constituents they need because of legal or social reasons. They may not have their freely given medication safe from theft or they may not have the transportation to get to the locations where such services are possible. In cases where sex remains a stigma, people who may need such services could be shunned from society or looked down up, thus having their dignity taken, for seeking assistance with this disease or any other.
Gender inequality poses one of the key threats to the successful eradication and treatment of AIDS. In countries where gender inequality prevails, women are denied their right to or have limited funding which prevents them from accessing proper sexual education, or any education at all. If women are not allowed to receive education, they cannot better understand the problem of AIDS or what treatments are available for them. In countries where women cannot leave the house without a male escort, getting to an area where help is being administered is often times prohibited and impossible no matter how dire the need. In the same area, being unable to hold a job limits the available income and means of travel and transportation that women have to the same medical information, treatment, and care afforded to males within the same community.
Finally, in countries where there does not exist gender equality, females may be unable to report cases of sexual assault or abuse that may have resulted in the transfer or AIDS or may be unable to use the contraceptives that work to prevent it when a man denies them.
In conclusion, in order to mobilize efforts to prevent and treat AIDS, each country where AIDS is a prolific problem must tackle three key issues. The first issue is that of human rights, that of human dignity, and gender equality. Without these things, all of the most highly affected individuals will be unable to partake equally in the prevention, treatment, and care for AIDS.
AIDS 2012. “AIDS 2012 Home.” AIDS 2012 Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.
The next wave of HIV/AIDS, US National Intelligence Council, ICA 2002-04D, September 2002.
Cherkerzian, Diane. “Ray Carney Hacks Up Hollywood.” The Revolution Is Within. N.p., 06 Oct. 2009. Web. 08 Nov. 2015.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. “HIV and AIDS – The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.” Global Fund Blog. He Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.
UNAIDS. 1999. Guidelines for HIV Prevention in Emergency Settings. Geneva: UNAIDS.
Office of National AIDS Policy. “Office of National AIDS Policy.” The White House. The White House, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.
Nikoli´c-Ristanovi´c, Vesna. 1996. “War and violence against women,” in Jennifer Turpin and Lois Ann Lorentzen (eds.), The Gendered New World Order: Militarism, Development and the Environment. New York: Routledge, pp.
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